The Basics of the Residential
Home Mortgage Appraisal Process
By Thomas Hardwick
Determine if a property valuation is
people know that if you are buying a new home or refinancing an existing home,
a real estate appraisal will most likely be performed as a part of the loan
approval process. But valuations for estate planning, tax appeal,
divorce, foreclosure, insurance damage purposes (due to fire, water, weather,
etc) are some other reasons for getting an opinion of value from a professional
real estate appraiser. Simply put, once it is determined you need to
answer the question: ‘What is my property worth?’ then the next step is
to hire a professional real estate appraiser.
Engagement of the Appraiser by the
residential mortgage financing transactions, the lender must be the one to hire
the appraiser, either directly or through an Appraisal Management
Company. An Appraisal Management Company (AMC) is a third party vendor
contracted by a lender to oversee part of, or all of, the appraisal
process. It can be as simple as the AMC ordering and forwarding the
completed appraisal report to the lender. Full service AMCs can also
approve appraisers for the lender panel and review completed reports for
compliance with lender specific and general industry guidelines.
homeowner (in a refinance) or a buyer (in a sale) cannot hire the appraiser
directly and is not considered a client of the appraiser, regardless of who
pays for the appraisal. In the Uniform Standards of Professional
Appraisal Practice (USPAP), the client is defined as “the party or parties who
engage, by employment or contract, an appraiser in a specific assignment”
(USPAP 2014-2015 Edition Page U2 Line 49). Consistent with USPAP rules,
since the lender engages the appraiser, the lender is the client.
Furthermore, Fannie Mae & Freddie Mac form reports, used by conventional
lenders, FHA & VA, specifically state the intended user is the
lender/client and that it is not permitted to modify, add, or delete an
intended user. The
appraiser-client relationship is not established based on the person or persons
paying for the appraisal service.
appraiser has confidentiality obligations under USPAP and “must not disclose:
(1) confidential information or (2) assignment results to anyone other than:
the client; persons specifically authorized by the client; state appraiser
regulatory agencies; third parties as may be authorized by due process of law;
or a duly authorized professional peer review committee except when such
disclosure to a committee would violate applicable law or regulation.” (USPAP 2014-2015 Edition Page U9 Lines
297-304). Therefore, the appraiser may not be able to discuss with the
homeowner, borrower or even the real estate agent(s), certain aspects of the
appraisal or report that could be considered confidential or any information
that is specifically identified as confidential by the client.
Determine the type (and definition) of value
from hiring a qualified professional appraiser, determining the type and
definition of value is an essential step in the appraisal process. What is value? According to the
Merriam Webster Dictionary, value is: “the amount of money that
something is worth; the price or cost of something”. In appraising, there
are many different types of value;therefore,
it is imperative to know what type of valuation solution is needed. In
the lending universe, market
value is, by far, the most requested value type. Other types of
value can include: insurable value, replacement value, investment value,
liquidation value, going concern value, business value, retrospective value and
prospective value. One example of a prospective valuation is for a new
construction home that is to be built but at the time of the appraisal does not
currently exist on the property site. During the engagement process
between the appraiser and the client, the scope of work is established
including the type of value that is to be used.
An Appraisal is not a Home Inspection
The terms inspection and inspector have been used in the appraising world
with various meanings and interpretations. An appraisal inspection is
different than a home inspection.
lending purposes, an appraisal is for the lender/client; home inspections are for the
buyer or home owner. The appraiser is tasked with
providing a professional opinion of value, most often a market value, for a
appraisal and its report do not guarantee that the property is free of defects
or environmental problems. In a home inspection, a qualified inspector takes an in-depth look at
the home to evaluate the physical improvements (structure, construction,
mechanical/electrical/plumbing systems); identifies components that need to be
repaired or replaced; and estimates the remaining useful life of the major
systems, equipment, structure and finishes.
Preparing for the Appraiser’s site visit
you are selling your home, the real estate professional marketing your property
should have discussed the benefits of giving your home the best possible
presentation. On the exterior, this is typically called “curb
appeal”. On the interior, it is generally referred to as “staging”.
if the loan is being guaranteed by FHA, VA or most other government
backed/guaranteed loans, when possible, any known safety repairs should be
completed prior to the appraisers visit. Check out FHA
& VA Repairs and Other Related Issues- A Checklist that can be easily completed.
bushes or other larger objects next to the house can make it difficult to
accurately measure the structure. Therefore, you can help the appraiser
by making sure there is easy access to the exterior walls of the house.
Also make sure that the appraiser can easily access items like furnaces, water
heaters, attic scuttles and crawl spaces.
winter months, make sure snow is removed from the driveway, sidewalks, patios,
decks, etc. Remember these items affect value and should be observable by
the appraiser for accuracy. If you have recent pictures of the exterior patio,
in-ground pool, deck, etc. without snow cover, they can be handy references for
Setting up a time for the Appraiser’s site
you are selling your home, the appraiser generally will contact the real estate
agent or their office to schedule the site visit. If you are refinancing
your home, the appraiser should contact you directly to schedule the
appointment time. Most all lenders have a defined timeframe for the
delivery of the completed appraisal report, so it is not uncommon to get very
short notice in the appointment request from the appraiser. Flexibility
in providing access to the appraiser will help to ensure timely delivery of the
appraisal report to the client.
On the day of the site visit
critical step in most valuation assignments is the home visit by the
appraiser. During this process, the appraiser will come to your home and
complete an interior walk-though, taking notes on individual aspects of the
each room as well as the general condition and quality of the home, create a
room layout drawing, and take numerous photos of your house for inclusion in
the report. The appraiser will also measure the home as well as makes
observations of the neighboring houses and the neighborhood in general.
Mae, Freddie Mac, FHA& VA require that appraisers take interior photographs
of, at least, the kitchen, all bathrooms, the main living area, examples of
physical deterioration and any recent updates. Often, individual lenders
require interior photos of all rooms and the interiors of all outbuildings (pole barns, sheds, etc).
you are home when the appraiser arrives, do not be afraid to request
identification. Chances are you have never met the appraiser before and
they will be entering your home, so request seeing their driver’s license,
their pocket real estate appraiser license and a name-specific business
is the appraiser’s job to report on the condition and other aspects of the
property, so make sure all occupants are up (not sleeping in bedrooms) and not
showering in bathrooms. Appraisers are at your home only a short period
of time, and access to all rooms is imperative to a complete and accurate
you are home at the time the appraiser shows up or your real estate agent has
requested you leave prior to the visit, several things you can do to prepare
your home for the appraiser are:
all window shades or drapery
on lights in all rooms
sure any outbuildings (garages, sheds, pole barns, workshops, etc) are open and
housekeeping (don’t have piles of dirty dishes from a week ago in the sink,
vacuum the floors, clean up any dirty laundry, flush toilets, etc)
all offensive odors (garbage, clean the cat litter box, etc)
any pets (While your dog or cat may be your best friend, please remove them
during the appraisers site visit. NEVER
LEAVE A LOOSE DOG IN THE HOUSE, PARTICULARLY, IF YOU WILL NOT BE HOME
WITH THE APPRAISER. Remember, to your dog,
the appraiser is a stranger in the house)
simply throw stuff in the closets to prep the house, as the appraiser should
open every door! One never knows where a homeowner may have hidden a half
bath or a mechanical system.
the home has a scuttle or drop stairs to the attic, make sure the attic area is
accessible. If there is a scuttle, make sure it is not painted shut, is
not covered by insulation and have an appropriately
sized sturdy ladder available to the appraiser for a “head and
shoulders” observation of the attic.
the home has a crawl space, make sure access is available to the appraiser,
making sure an access panel is open and not obstructed.
winter months, make sure snow is removed from the driveway, sidewalks, patios,
can help the appraiser to provide a more accurate appraisal in a less time, if
you can provide the following, when possible:
survey of the house/property.
legal description of the property. If the property contains more than one
parcel, make sure you provide the legal descriptions of the other parcels.
2 most recent tax bills
any personal property is to be sold with the house, a list of the items.
list of any renovations or updating completed to the property (include
approximate dates & costs). If known, provide dates on when kitchens
and baths were updated or remodeled in the past 15 years.
the property has a private well or septic system, a drawing of the home and the
approximate locations of the well head, the septic holding tank and drainfield.
most residential real estate appraisers have access to a large amount of sales,
through their local or regional Realtor® Multiple Listing Service (MLS), or
through other private database organizations, some properties are sold as For
Sale by Owner (FSBO). FSBOs are not usually entered into the local
Realtor® MLS databases, therefore, if you or your real estate agent, are aware
of any For Sale by Owner sales similar to your property, then you can, and
should, provide this information to the appraiser for review. At a
minimum, provide the full property address and the sale price, although, if
possible, provide the tax assessor data information and a name of someone
involved in the sale.
you may want to ask questions of the appraiser when they are conducting the
site visit of your property. As was discussed above, the appraiser has
certain confidentiality obligations to the lender client and may not be able to
answer specific questions about the appraisal process, including whether the
home will appraise for a certain dollar amount. In fact, in some lender
engagement letters, appraisers are specifically informed to not discuss values
or even when the report will be completed.
Awaiting the results of the process
appraiser has left your home, now what happens? The home site visit is
just the beginning of the appraisers work in providing an appraisal
valuation. There are two components to the valuation process: developing
the opinion of value and communicating the results. After gathering the
information on the property and after the site visit, the appraiser is ready to
get into the process of developing the opinion of value.
steps to the appraisal process include:
specific information on the property and general information on the area or
and analyzing data, applying the most appropriate approach(es) to value.
(Examples: Cost Approach, Income Approach and Sales Comparison Approach);
the data and developing a final opinion of value;
the assignment results to the client. While results of the appraisal can
be communicated orally, for mortgage transactions, this is typically done
through a written appraisal form report;
submission to the client, a lender underwriter or other designated party
reviews the appraisal report.
And the answer is...
the appraiser has completed the appraisal process and the report is now with
the lender. Finally, you learn the appraiser’s professional opinion of
the (market) value of your home and whether your home did or did not appraise
at or above the contracted sale price or the amount needed for a refinance.
When the appraised value is less than is desired for a sale or refinance, some
people believe or, in some cases, openly state that the appraiser is “killing
the deal”. The appraiser is employed to provide an unbiased professional opinion of value,
not to arrive at a predetermined value. Understand that, simply because
the appraised value may be less than you need or believe your home should be
valued at, this does not equate to a flawed, incompetent or inaccurate
lender is required to provide you with a copy of the appraisal report.
This is your opportunity to review the report for accuracy. Appraisers
are human and appraisal reports are very technical documents, so minor errors
do from time to time occur. If considering an appeal, what you need to
look for and consider are factual inaccuracies that could affect the valuation
analysis conducted. Omitting the pole barn, missing a half bath,
indicating laminate countertops instead of granite, quartz or solid surface,
and miscalculating the square footage of the home are examples of errors that
could affect the valuation. Do you know of a very similar house one
street away that recently sold and was not included in the appraisal? If
you have concerns about the factual information in the report, contact your
lender in writing and request any lender-specific process required for an
appeal of the appraisal. Be prepared to provide detailed feedback on the errors you found in the appraisal report or
additional information you feel is relevant for consideration. The lender
should then forward your appeal request to the appraiser for comment or
correction of the appraisal report or valuation.
Repairs for Government Loans (FHA, VA, etc)
people stress out thinking about dealing with a government guaranteed loan,
such as FHA and VA. But this need not be the case. HUD/FHA states
the home should be “Safe, Sound and Secure”, while VA varies slightly that the
home should be “Safe, Sound and Sanitary”.
FHA and VA have written guidelines (HUD Handbooks 4910.1 & 4150.2 and VA
Pamphlet 26-7) that provide specific requirements for most of the major
components of a home and property. Often FHA and VA loan applicants are
first time home buyers, and one of the rationales for both programs is to try
to minimize the need for unexpected repairs soon after a home purchase.
Both FHA and VA strongly recommend a buyer gets a home inspection from a qualified inspector.
you are selling your home, your real estate professional should provide you
with market data indicating whether FHA, VA or other government loans are
common in homes similar to yours. If a majority of the homes similar to
yours in market area are sold with FHA loans, then it stands to reason it is likely
that you may receive a FHA loan offer. Before you even get to the point
of looking over offers, you and your real estate professional should make an
honest assessment of any potential repairs necessary and whether an issue
appears to be cosmetic or is possibly a repair required to be completed for a
government backed loan approval. Some repairs such as deteriorated roof
shingles, an old furnace needing replacement or even a combination of multiple
but small repairs can be costly.
a reasonable fee, some FHA-approved appraisers will come to your home and
provide an assessment on the repairs that would most likely be required.